The small press movement in the United States began to gain momentum in the mid-20th century, particularly during the 1950s and 1960s. It was closely tied to the broader countercultural and independent publishing movements of that era.
Some key factors and events that contributed to the growth of the small press movement in the mid-20th century include:
The Beat Generation: Writers like Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, and William S. Burroughs, associated with the Beat Generation, sought to break away from mainstream publishing and express unconventional ideas and artistic styles. They often turned to small, independent publishers to release their works.
Poetry and Literary Magazines: Many small presses began as literary magazines that published poetry and short stories. These publications served as platforms for emerging writers and experimental literature. Examples include "The Paris Review," "Black Mountain Review," and "Evergreen Review."
The DIY Ethos: The countercultural movements of the 1960s, which included the civil rights movement, anti-war protests, and the rise of the hippie culture, embraced a "do-it-yourself" ethos. Small presses and independent publishing were seen as a way to circumvent mainstream media and express alternative voices and ideas.
Technological Advances: Advances in printing and publishing technologies, such as offset printing and the photocopier, made it more feasible for small presses to produce and distribute books and magazines inexpensively.
Legal and Social Changes: Legal precedents, such as court decisions upholding the First Amendment right to publish controversial and unconventional works, provided greater freedom for small presses to take risks in their publications.
Experimental and Avant-Garde Literature: The small press movement was a significant force in promoting experimental and avant-garde literature, pushing the boundaries of what was considered acceptable in publishing.
Alternative Distribution Channels: The growth of alternative distribution channels, such as independent bookstores and alternative book fairs, helped small press publications reach their niche audiences.
While the small press movement had its roots in the mid-20th century, it has continued to evolve and adapt to changing technologies and cultural shifts. Small presses remain an important part of the literary landscape, supporting emerging and marginalized voices and promoting diverse and innovative literature.